Lithium-ion based batteries first made their appearance in commercial markets in the 1990's. They are often referred to as secondary or rechargeable batteries. Average single cell voltage during discharge is typically about 3.7 Volts; full voltage window is usually 2.5 to 4.2 Volts for conventional oxide based systems. Other types of systems include lithium-ion-manganese and lithium-ion-phosphate. These batteries are the perfect choice for applications requiring continual daily use. The price per battery is significantly lower than primary batteries when amortized across hundreds of charge and discharge life cycles. These batteries are very commonly used in laptop computers, smart phones, and many other consumer mobile devices. They have also seen increased usage in the electrical vehicle and grid storage markets.
MaxPower core rechargeable technologies include: